ارزیابی حُسن اجرای سیاست های راهبردی و کلان علم و فنّاوری در ایران مبتنی بر رویکرد شبکۀ سیاستی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری سیاستگذاری علم و فنّاوری، گروه مدیریت فنّاوری اطلاعات، دانشکدۀ مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران

2 دکتری مهندسی برق، استاد، گروه مهندسی فنّاوری اطلاعات، دانشکده مهندسی صنایع و سیستم ها، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران

3 دکتری مهندسی صنایع، استاد، گروه مدیریت فنّاوری اطلاعات، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران

10.30507/jmsp.2021.276996.2216

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش ارزیابی حُسن اجرای سیاست‌های راهبردی و کلانِ علم و فنّاوری در ایران به روش شبکۀ سیاستی است. بدین منظور با مرور ادبیات در حوزۀ سیاست‌گذاری عمومی و به ویژه سیاست‌گذاری علم و فنّاوری، چارچوبی نظری شامل سه مرحلۀ سیاست‌گذاری کلی (شامل دو سطح اَبَرسیاست‌ها و سیاست‌های راهنما)، سیاست‌گذاری اجرایی (شامل سه بخش سیاست‌های سمت تقاضا، سیاست‌های سمت عرضه و سیاست‌های زیرساخت مبادله) و ارزیابی سیاستی (در سه سطح بروندادها، پیامدها و آثار) تدوین شد. سپس شبکۀ سیاستی علم و فنّاوریِ ایران در وضعیت موجود، نخست مبتنی بر اسناد سیاستی و سپس مبتنی بر نظریات خبرگان نگاشت و با یکدیگر مقایسه شد. بدین منظور نخست 25 سند سیاستی بررسی و سپس پرسشنامه‌ای تدوین و بین 50 نفر از خبرگان سیاست علم و فنّاوریِ ایران توزیع شد. برای تحلیل و ترسیم نگاشت‌های حاصل از اسناد سیاستی و نظریات خبرگان از نرم افزارهای یو سی آی نت و نت دراو و برای مقایسۀ آنها با یکدیگر از آزمون تی به کمک نرم افزار اس پی اس اس استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد عملکرد شبکۀ سیاستی علم و فنّاوریِ ایران مبتنی بر آرای خبرگان در قریب به 44 درصد نسبت به تکالیف اسناد سیاستی انحراف دارد. بدین معنی که در مأموریت‌های سیاستیِ تعدادی از نهادهای شبکۀ سیاستی علم و فنّاوریِ ایران، تفاوت‌های معنادار بین آنچه در اسناد سیاستی ذکر شده و آنچه در عمل انجام می‌شود، وجود دارد. همچنین دربارۀ بعضی سیاست‌های علم و فنّاوری، ضعف جدی عملکرد وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the good implementation of strategic and macro policies of science and technology in Iran based on the policy network approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • esmaeel kalantari 1
  • gholamali montazer 2
  • seyyed sepehr Ghazinoory 3
1 PH.D. Student in Science and Technology policy. Department of IT Management, Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
2 PH.D. in Electrical Engineering. Professor, Department of IT Engineering, Faculty of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
3 PH.D. in Industrial Engineering. Professor, Department of IT Management. Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the good implementation of strategic and macro policies of science and technology in Iran by the policy network method. To this end, by reviewing the literature in the field of public policy and especially science and technology policy, a theoretical framework including three stages of general policy (including two levels of mega policies and meta policies), executive policy (including Three sections of demand-side policies, supply-side policies and interaction infrastructure policies) and policy evaluation (at three levels of outputs, outcomes and effects) were developed. Then, the Iranian Science and Technology Policy Network in the current situation, based on policy documents and opinions of experts, was mapped and compared with each other. For this purpose, 25 policy documents were reviewed firstly and then a questionnaire was developed and distributed among 50 experts in Iranian science and technology policy. UCINet and NetDraw were used to analyze and draw the maps obtained from policy documents and experts' opinions, and T-test was used to compare them with SPSS. The results show that the performance of Iran's science and technology policy network based on expert opinions is almost 44% different from the tasks of policy documents. This means that in the policy missions of a number of institutions of the Iranian Science and Technology Policy Network, there are significant differences between what is mentioned in the policy documents and what is done in practice. There is also a serious lack of performance on some science and technology policies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Policy documents
  • Science and technology policy making
  • Science and Technology Policy Network
  • Functional deviations
  • Iran
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