الگوی تدابیر مهارگر فساد عرفی در سازمان های دولتی ایران

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت دولتی، واحد چالوس،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،چالوس، ایران

2 دکتری مدیریت دولتی- استاد– گروه مدیریت دولتی – دانشگاه تهران

3 گروه حسابداری، واحد چالوس،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،چالوس، ایران

10.30507/jmsp.2021.263119.2179

چکیده

فساد اداری مسئله ای است که از گذشته تا کنون گریبانگیر سازمان های دولتی بوده و هسته اندیشه بسیاری از دانشمندان و متفکران علوم مدیریتی، سیاسی، اجتماعی و ... راتشکیل داده است. گسترش فساد در سطح جهانی سبب شد که مبارزه با آن به‌صورت یک امر فراملی و جهانی درآید. زمانی که فساد در سازمان‌های دولتی گسترش یابد، به یک عرف غلط تبدیل شده و دیگر مهار و مبارزه با فساد عرفی تنها از طریق اصلاح الگوها و بسته‌های رفتاری محقق می‌شود. در این پژوهش، با استفاده از روش کیفی و تئوری داده بنیاد، درگام اول به مفهوم‌پردازی از فساد عرفی در سازمان‌های دولتی ایران پرداخته شده است. فسادی که در بین سازمان‌های دولتی ایران شایع شده و به امری اجتناب‌ناپذیر تبدیل شده است. در گام بعدی شناسایی مؤلفه‌های فساد عرفی و در نهایت به تدابیر مهارگر برای فساد عرفی در سازمان‌های دولتی ایران درعرصه های مختلف(حاکمیتی، ساختاری،مدیریتی و ... ) ارائه گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Model of measures to curb customary corruption in Iranian government organizations

نویسندگان [English]

  • HAMIDREZA YARAHMADI 1
  • Ali asghar pourezzat 2
  • yousef taghi poriani gilani 3
  • davoud kia kojori 1
1 Department of Public Administration, Chalous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, Iran
2 PhD in Public Management - Professor - Department of Public Management - University of Tehran
3 Department of Accounting, Chalous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, Iran
چکیده [English]

Corruption is an issue that has plagued government organizations in the past and has formed the core of the minds of many scientists and thinkers in management, political, social and other sciences. The spread of corruption worldwide has made the fight against it a transnational and global issue. When corruption spreads in government organizations, it becomes a false custom, and the control and fight against type of customary corruption is achieved only by modifying patterns and behavioral packages. In this study, using the qualitative method and data theory of the foundation, the first step is to conceptualize customary corruption in Iranian government organizations. Corruption has become is widespread among Iranian government organizations and has become inevitable. In the next step, identifying on the components of customary corruption and finally the measures to curb of customary corruption is in Iranian government organizations in various areas (governance, structural, managerial, etc.) are presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Measures
  • restraint
  • customary corruption
  • Iranian government organizations
Abaszadeh Vaghefi, Sh., Delkhah, J., & Forouzandeh Dehkordi, L. (2017). Analyzing the native factors of administrative corruption: the case of Tehran’s municipal. Audit Science, 17(68), 5-40. (Persian)
Abolhasani, R. (2007). Political corruption based on some Muslim thinkers. Journal of Politics, 37(4), 1-19. (Persian)
Alvani, M., & Eslami Panah, M. (2017). Designing a model for preventing official corruption through Islamic thoughts. Resource Management in the Police, 5(3), 25-50. (Persian)
Alvani, M., Ghorbani Zadeh, V., & Eslami Panah, M. (2017). The hierarchy of effective criteria for preventing official corruption through Islamic thoughts. Public Administration, 9(2), 283-306. (Persian)
Alvani, M., Zarandi, S., & Arab Sorkhi, A. (2010). The factors of designing national strategies for combating corruption in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Public Administration, 2(4), 3-22. (Persian)
Antonakas, N. P., Seimenis, I., & Konstantopoulos, N. (2014). The organizational structure of the public service and its role on the level of corruption: the case of Greek tax administration. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 494-500.
Apergis, E., & Apergis, N. (2017). US political corruption: Identifying the channels of bribes for firms’ financial policies. International Review of Financial Analysis, 54, 87-94.
Armantier, O., & Boly, A. (2011). A controlled field experiment on corruption. European Economic Review, 55(8), 1072-1082.
Athanasouli, D., & Goujard, A. (2015). Corruption and management practices: Firm level evidence. Journal of Comparative Economics, 43(4), 1014-1034.
Azimi, H., Atarfar, A., & Shaemi Barzaki, A. (2010). Analyzing the effective managerial and organizational factors on the administrative-financial corruption in public organiations of Isfahan and Zanjan provinces. Strategic Management Thought, 4(2), 129-147. (Persian)
Balafoutas, L. (2011). Public beliefs and corruption in a repeated psychological game. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 78(1-2), 51-59.
Barkemeyer, R., Preuss, L., & Lee, L. (2015, December). Corporate reporting on corruption: An international comparison. In Accounting Forum (Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 349-365). Taylor & Francis.
Behboudi, M., Izari, M., & Etebarian, A. (2018). Designing an interpretational-structural model of effective factors on official corruption in the electronic government in Iran. Iranian Journal of Social Problems, 9(2), 63-90. (Persian)
Brada, J. C., Drabek, Z., Mendez, J. A., & Perez, M. F. (2019). National levels of corruption and foreign direct investment. Journal of Comparative Economics, 47(1), 31-49.
Chantziaras, A., Dedoulis, E., Grougiou, V., & Leventis, S. (2020). The impact of religiosity and corruption on CSR reporting: The case of US banks. Journal of Business Research, 109, 362-374.
Corrado, G., & Rossetti, F. (2018). Public corruption: A study across regions in Italy. Journal of Policy Modeling, 40(6), 1126-1139.
Cracau, D., & Franz, B. (2013). Bonus payments as an anti-corruption instrument: A theoretical approach. Economics letters, 120(1), 1-4.
Deng, J. (2018). The National Supervision Commission: A new anti-corruption model in China. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 52, 58-73.
Diaby, A., & Sylwester, K. (2014). Bureaucratic competition and public corruption: Evidence from transition countries. European Journal of Political Economy, 35, 75-87.
Dong, B., & Torgler, B. (2013). Causes of corruption: Evidence from China. China Economic Review, 26, 152-169.
Ebrahimi, Sh., & Safayi Atashgah, H. (2015). A legal approach towards preventing crime in the law of improving the official health system and prevention of corruption. Journal of Criminal Law Research, 6(2), 7-31. (Persian)
Esmi Khani, F., & Haghighi Rad, F. (2016). A dynamic model for analyzing official corruption in Iran. Majles and Rahbord, 23(88), 107-134. (Persian)
Farhadinezhad, M., & Legzian, M. (2011). A longitudinal survey: the pretexts for administrative corruption and the methods for its control (1999-2009). Public Administration Perspective, 8, 45-60. (Persian)
Farjiha, M., & Javadi, H. (2014). A criminological study of trespass and administrative corruption among the staff of cultural and entertainment organization in Isfahan. Social Welfare, 14(54), 243-266. (Persian)
Farooq, A., Shahbaz, M., Arouri, M., & Teulon, F. (2013). Does corruption impede economic growth in Pakistan?. Economic Modelling, 35, 622-633.
Fatahizadeh, F., & Shirdel, M. (2018). Semantic description of ‘corruption’ in interpreting verses of Quran. Journal of The Holy Quran and Islamic Texts, 9(34), 25-42. (Persian)
Fath, S., & Kay, A. C. (2018). “If hierarchical, then corrupt”: Exploring people’s tendency to associate hierarchy with corruption in organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 149, 145-164.
Fazeli, M., & Jalili Kenari, M. (2012). The level of corruption: a comparative study of the impact of the quality of governance and good governance. The Socio-Cultural Research Journal of Rahbord, 2(5), 7-40. (Persian)
Fazeli, M., & Jalili, M. (2018). The relationship of the quality of governance, level of corruption, and the institutional and social trust in some countries. Journal of Applied Sociology, 29(70), 191-210. (Persian)
Fazli, M., & Khaleghi, A. (2018). Legislative problems of reducing corruption in public contracts through OECD guidelines. Journal of Criminal Law Research, 6(23), 171-212. (Persian)
Fredriksson, A. (2014). Bureaucracy intermediaries, corruption and red tape. Journal of Development Economics, 108, 256-273.
Georgescu, M. A. (2014). Unethical aspects and the recent manifestation of corruption in Romanian public administration. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15, 452-458.
Ghomami, M., & Ghasemi, M. (2017). The starting point of combating corruption through the symptomatic approach: the case of legal system in Iran. Audit Science, 17(69), 151-172. (Persian)
Goel, R. K., & Nelson, M. A. (2010). Causes of corruption: History, geography and government. Journal of Policy Modeling, 32(4), 433-447.
Hacek, M., Kukovic, S., & Brezovsek, M. (2013). Problems of corruption and distrust in political and administrative institutions in Slovenia. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 46(2), 255-261.
Hadavinia, A., & Khadivi Rofougar, S. (2017). Conceptualization and measurement of economic corruption from the Islamic perspective through fundamentalism. Islamic Economics, 17(66), 47-75. (Persian)
Haghighatian, M., Karimi Zadeh, S., & Nazari, J. (2012). Analyzing some social effective factors on official corruption the case of official organizations in Yazd. Journal of Applied Sociology, 23(4), 125-142. (Persian)
Imani, H., Gholipour, A., Azar, A., & Pourezat, A. (2019). Identifying the factors of human resource systems in line with improving a healthy official system. Public Administration, 11(2), 251-284. (Persian)
Jabarpour, M., Abedi Jafari, H., & Abouyi Ardakani, M. (2015). Analyzing the policies of combating corruption in the quadruplet plans of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Public Policy, 1(2), 51-68. (Persian)
Jafari, M., & Golkhandan, A. (2015). The relationship between corruption and the size of government in some Islamic countries: the causality Granger panel test based on bootstrap. Journal of Iran’s Economic Essays, 12(23), 9-31. (Persian)
Jeppesen, K. K. (2019). The role of auditing in the fight against corruption. The British Accounting Review, 51(5), 100798.
Justesen, M. K., & Bjørnskov, C. (2014). Exploiting the poor: Bureaucratic corruption and poverty in Africa. World Development, 58, 106-115.
Khadari, B., Mohammadzadeh Aghdam, A., & Sadat Momeni Masouleh, F. (2016). The effective social factors of official corruption in public organizations of Sanandaj. Social Welfare, 16(60), 137-172. (Persian)
Khalaf Khani, M. (2009). Analyzing the relationship between the social capital and official corruption. Rahbord, 18(53), 39-55. (Persian)
Khan, A., & Krishnan, S. (2019). Conceptualizing the impact of corruption in national institutions and national stakeholder service systems on e-government maturity. International Journal of Information Management, 46, 23-36.
Khandan, A. (2016). Political and official corruption: the mutual impact and the role of social factors. Quantitative Economics, 13(4), 19-44. (Persian)
Khodapanah, M. (2015). Analyzing indexes of economic corruption in Iran through fuzzy logic and its relationship with economic infrastructures through Granger’s causality test. Quarterly Journal of Quantitative Economics, 12(3), 1-25. (Persian)
Khoini, Gh., & Rahimi, A. (2016). Analyzing the result of implementing the law of improving the official system health and combating corruption of 2011. Audit Science, 16(62), 5-24. (Persian)
Kiani, P., & Pourezat, A. (2013). The effective factors of reducing financial corruption in public organizations and research institutes. Quantitative Studies in Management, 4(3), 19-46. (Persian)
Kominis, G., & Dudau, A. (2018). Collective corruption–How to live with it: Towards a projection theory of post-crisis corruption perpetuation. European Management Journal, 36(2), 235-242.
Kotera, G., Okada, K., & Samreth, S. (2012). Government size, democracy, and corruption: An empirical investigation. Economic Modelling, 29(6), 2340-2348.
Krishnamurti, C., Shams, S., & Velayutham, E. (2018). Corporate social responsibility and corruption risk: A global perspective. Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Economics, 14(1), 1-21.
Lee, C. C., Wang, C. W., & Ho, S. J. (2020). Country governance, corruption, and the likelihood of firms’ innovation. Economic Modelling.
Lewellyn, K. B. (2017). The role of national culture and corruption on managing earnings around the world. Journal of World Business, 52(6), 798-808.
Lima, M. S. M., & Delen, D. (2020). Predicting and explaining corruption across countries: A machine learning approach. Government Information Quarterly, 37(1), 101407.
Liu, X. (2016). Corruption culture and corporate misconduct. Journal of Financial Economics, 122(2), 307-327.
Locatelli, G., Mariani, G., Sainati, T., & Greco, M. (2017). Corruption in public projects and megaprojects: There is an elephant in the room!. International Journal of Project Management, 35(3), 252-268.
Mandal, B., & Marjit, S. (2010). Corruption and wage inequality?. International Review of Economics & Finance, 19(1), 166-172.
Mohammadi, M., Rafie, H., Mousavi, M., & Hosseinzadeh, S. (2016). Corruption awareness and feeling social justice. Journal of Social Problems of Iran, 7(1), 125-144. (Persian)
Nargesian, A., Jamali, Gh., Harati, M., & Azari, H. (2018). The relationship between corruption and trust with regards to clarity and citizen’s satisfaction. Administrative Management, 10(2), 289-310. (Persian)
Navadeh Toupchi, H. (2010). Challenges of executing the United Nations conventions for combating corruption in Iran. Rahbord, 19(57), 217-243. (Persian)
Nazari Nezhad, M., & Esfandiarifar, Kh. (2016). A comparative study of the international convention for combating financial corruption and the law of improving administrative system health and combating corruption. Criminal Law Research, 10(2), 289-310. (Persian)
Nekovee, M., & Pinto, J. (2019). Modeling the impact of organization structure and whistle-blowers on intra-organizational corruption contagion. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 522, 339-349.
Nikpour, A. (2016a). A model for public supervision for preventing administrative corruption in public organizations in Iran. Majles and Rahbord, 23(87), 201-231. (Persian)
Nikpour, A. (2016b). The impact of organizational supervision via the Islamic approach on administrative corruption of public organizations in Iran based on the staff’s perspectives. Management in the Islamic University, 5(1), 107-126. (Persian)
Nikpour, A., Manzari Tavakoli, A., Salajeghe, S., Pourkiani, M., & Arabpour, A. (2016). Analyzing the impact of organizational supervision through the Islamic approach on administrative corruption in public organizations of Iran. Rahbord, 25(79), 93-116. (Persian)
Nur-tegin, K., & Jakee, K. (2020). Does corruption grease or sand the wheels of development? New results based on disaggregated data. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 75, 19-30.
Olmos, L., Bellido, H., & Román-Aso, J. A. (2020). The effects of mega-events on perceived corruption. European Journal of Political Economy, 61, 101826.
Othman, Z., Shafie, R., Hamid, A., & Zakimi, F. (2014). Corruption–Why do they do it?. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 164, 248-257.
Owusu, E. K., Chan, A. P., Yang, J., & Pärn, E. (2020). Towards corruption-free cities: Measuring the effectiveness of anti-corruption measures in infrastructure project procurement and management in Hong Kong. Cities, 96, 102435.
Pakseresht, S., & Afshar, Z. (2017). Analyzing the theories of anti-corruption policies in post—revolutionary Iran. Journal of Strategic Studies of Public Policy, 7(25), 179-201. (Persian)
Pourezat, A., Taheri Atar, Gh., & Rouzbehani, Kh. (2015). A transcendental governing approach towards preventing corruption. Public Administration Perspective, 23, 37-53. (Persian)
Rahman, I. K. A., Ab Rahman, N. A., Azhar, Z., Omar, N., & Said, J. (2015). Management accounting best practices award for improving corruption in public sector agencies. Procedia Economics and Finance, 31, 503-509.
Rahmani, H., Mousa Khani, M., Memarzadeh Tehran, Gh. (2014). The predictive system of fuzzy logic of good governance in combating official corruption. Public Policy in Administration, 5(13-14), 1-12. (Persian)
Rahmani, H., Mousa Khani, M., Memarzadeh Tehran, Gh., Danesh Fard, K., & Kazemi, A. (2017). Merging the Delphi and Shanon entropy methods for combating against the official corruption using fuzzy logic. Industrial Management Studies, 15(44), 75-116. (Persian)
Rahmani, T., & Esfahani, P. (2016). Analyzing the effective factors of corruption focusing on economic activities: a study on the developing countries. Quarterly Journal of Economic Research and Policies, 24(78), 207-228. (Persian)
Rahnavard, F., Taherpour Kalantari, H., & Rashidi, A. (2010). The effective factors of financial corruption among the staff in the executive organizations. Journal of Executive Management, 10(1), 35-51. (Persian)
Ramirez, C. D. (2014). Is corruption in China “out of control”? A comparison with the US in historical perspective. Journal of Comparative Economics, 42(1), 76-91.
Rashidi, A., & Jafari, A. (2011). Systematic and thorough corruption: a problem for the transition stage in Russia. Central Eurasia Studies, 4(8), 65-86. (Persian)
Reichborn-Kjennerud, K., et al. (2019). Sais work against corruption in Scandinavian, South-European and African countries: An institutional analysis. The British Accounting Review, 51(5), 100842.
Rezayi Daredeh, M., & Naghdi, A. (2019). Analyzing the reasons of controlling corruption at the macro level based on fuzzy logic. Journal of Social Problems of Iran, 10(1), 81-99. (Persian)
Sabani, A., Farah, M. H., & Dewi, D. R. S. (2019). Indonesia in the Spotlight: Combating Corruption through ICT enabled Governance. Procedia Computer Science, 161, 324-332.
Sadati, M. (2015). Factors of inner-organizational productivity of centers combating economic corruption. Administrative law, 3(9), 9-28. (Persian)
Sadeghi, H., Asari, A., & Shaghaghi Shahri, V. (2010). Measuring financial corruption in Iran through fuzzy logic: an economic approach. Journal of Economic Research, 10(4), 139-174. (Persian)
Salimi, Gh., & Pourezat, A. (2010). Analyzing the impact of understanding injustice in organizations on the spread of administrative corruption. Strategic Management Thought, 4(1), 131-159. (Persian)
Sepahvand, R., Arefnezhad, M., Sepahvand, M., & Fathi Chegini, F. (2018). The impact of structural capital on reducing official corruption considering the mediating factor of personal goals of committing corruption: the case of public organizations in Kerman. Public Administration, 10(4), 583-604. (Persian)
Sepehrdoust, H., & Borjisian, A. (2016). Analyzing the indirect impact of corruption on economic development considering the corruption awareness index. Quantitative Economics, 13(1), 1-29. (Persian)
Sihombing, S. O. (2018). Youth perceptions toward corruption and integrity: Indonesian context. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39(2), 299-304.
Sundström, A. (2016). Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance. Journal of environmental management, 181, 779-790.
Swaleheen, M. (2012). Curbing corruption for higher growth: The importance of persistence. Economics Letters, 116(2), 255-257.
Taghi Nezhad Omran, V., Bahrami, J., & Nasiri, H. (2015). Analyzing the effect of globalization on reducing official corruption in MENA countries. Journal of Strategic Studies of Public Policy, 6(16), 237-261. (Persian)
Taghinezhad Omran, V., Bahrami, J., & Nasiri, H. (2015). Analyzing the impact of globalization on reducing administrative corruption of MENA countries. Journal of Strategic Studies of Public Policy, 6(16), 237-261. (Persian)
Taleghani, Gh., Tabatabai, Z., & Ghafari, A. (2014). Analyzing the individual and organizational factors on administrative corruption in the branches of Sepah Bank in Qom province. Organizational Culture Management, 12(2), 235-253. (Persian)
Talvitie, A. (2017). Observed differences in corruption between Asia and Africa: the industrial organization of corruption and its cure. Transportation Research Procedia, 25, 4476-4494.
Tavakoli, A. (2011). Measuring official corruption: an introduction to the methodological requirements for designing the national indexes. Methodology of Social Sciences and Humanities, 17(69), 193-216. (Persian)
Timofeyev, Y. (2015). Analysis of predictors of organizational losses due to occupational corruption. International Business Review, 24(4), 630-641.
Ufere, N., Gaskin, J., Perelli, S., Somers, A., & Boland Jr, R. (2020). Why is bribery pervasive among firms in sub-Saharan African countries? Multi-industry empirical evidence of organizational isomorphism. Journal of Business Research, 108, 92-104.
Ulman, S. R. (2014). The impact of the national competitiveness on the perception of corruption. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15, 1002-1009.
Yahya, K. K., Yean, T. F., Johari, J., & Saad, N. A. (2015). The perception of gen Y on organizational culture, religiosity and corruption in malaysian public organizations. Procedia Economics and Finance, 31, 251-261.
Zahedi, Sh., Mohammad Nabi, S., & Shahbazi, M. (2009). The effective factors of reducing official corruption the case of Tehran’s municipal. Organizational Culture Management, 7(20), 29-55. (Persian)
Zarandi, S., Hamidi Hesar, Y., & Madani, J. (2017). The effective factors of official corruption in the Islamic Republic of Iran’s organizations. Majles and Rahbord, 23(87), 201-231. (Persian)
Zhu, M., & Li, A. (2019). Political Attitudes of the Chinese Young People: An Empirical Study Based on Anti-Corruption Issue. Procedia Computer Science, 162, 449-457.