بررسی تاثیر بیکاری، تورم و حداقل دستمزد بر نابرابری درآمدی در مناطق روستایی استان‌های ایران

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار اقتصاد، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهدمشهد،ایران

2 دانتشجوی دکتری اقتصاد،دانشگاه فردوسی مشهدمشهد،ایران

3 استادیار اقتصاد،دانشگاه فردوسی مشهدمشهد،ایران

10.30507/jmsp.2020.102779

چکیده

شواهد تاریخی و تجربه‌های کشورهای مختلف نشان می‌دهد بیکاری و تورم در کنار حداقل دستمزد از جمله عوامل اقتصاد کلان مؤثر بـر سطح نابرابری درآمدی هستند. در این پژوهش بر اساس اطلاعات هزینه ناخالص خانوار برگرفته از طرح آمارگیری از هزینه و درآمد خانوارهای روستایی مرکز آمار ایران در دوره 1380 تا 1395، شاخص‌های ضریب جینی و نسبت سهم ده درصد ثروتمندترین خانوارها به ده درصد فقیرترین خانوارهای جامعه، به عنوان شاخص‌های اندازه‌گیری نابرابری توزیع درآمد مناطق روستایی استان‌های کشور اندازه‌گیری شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد در دوره مورد بررسی در مناطق روستایی کشور، نرخ تورم و حداقل دستمزد تاثیری منفی بر ضریب جینی و نسبت سهم ده درصد ثروتمندترین به ده درصد فقیرترین خانوارها داشته درحالی‌که بیکاری رابطه‌ای معناداری با این شاخص‌های نابرابری توزیع درآمد روستایی نداشته است. همچنین از آنجا که مبلغ یارانه سهم بالایی از درآمدهای گروه‌های پایین درآمدی را تشکیل می‌دهد، هزینه‌کرد گروه‌های پایین درآمدی به‌شدت افزایش یافت، درحالی‌که یارانه نقدی در گروه‌های بالای درآمدی، سهم زیادی در افزایش هزینه‌ها نداشته است، اجرای قانون هدفمندی یارانه‌ها، باعث کاهش نابرابری توزیع درآمد بر اساس میزان هزینه در سال‌های پس از اجرای این قانون شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Unemployment, Inflation and Minimum Wage on Income Inequality in Rural Areas of Iranian Provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Feizi 1
  • Morteza Beirzanvand 2
  • Saeed Malekosadati 3
1 Economics Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
3 Economics Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Identification of the precise pattern of income distribution and factors affecting them is the main prerequisite for any policy to reduce inequality. Historical evidence and experiences of different countries show that unemployment and inflation together with minimum wage are some of the effective macroeconomic variables on income inequality. In this paper, based on rural household expenditure from 2001 to 2016, not only the Gini index but also the ratio of the wealthiest decile to the poorest decile as inequality indices of rural areas in different states has been calculated. Our result shows that inflation rate and the minimum wage have a significant negative effect on inequality indices while unemployment was not significantly stimulus on inequality. Moreover, based on our result, since cash transferred from the Iranian subsidy reform plan had a significant share in the income of low-income families increases a lot their expenditures while it was not a significant share of income for rich families and therefore did not have any effect on their expenditures. Hence, all in all, the Iranian subsidy reform plan decreases inequality in income distribution in years after implementing this policy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • unemployment
  • Inflation
  • Minimum Wage
  • Income inequality
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