فقرزدایی به‌عنوان یکی از محورهای سیاست‌های کلی نظام: مرور نظام‌مند سیاست‌ها و برنامه‌ها (1384 تا 1399)

نوع مقاله : گردآوری و مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد، رشتۀ علوم اجتماعی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم اجتماعی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم اجتماعی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد. ایران

چکیده

فقر مسئله‌ای چندبُعدی است که تمام جوامع به‌صورت‌های گوناگون آن را تجربه کرده و می‌کنند. فقر عدم توانایی کافی در تأمین نیازهای اساسی تلقی می‌شود و بدیهی است که ناتوانی در تأمین نیازهای پایه‌، در وجوه مختلف بحران‌های شدیدی را در سطوح متعدد به‌وجود می‌آورد. با توجه به ابعاد گستردۀ فقرزدایی، این پدیده از اهمیت دوچندانی برخوردار است. هدف تحقیق پیشِ‌رو شناسایی سیاست‌ها و برنامه‌های مختلف فقرزدایی و عوامل ناظر بر موفقیت و ناکامی‌آن‌هاست. این تحقیق با استفاده از روش مرور نظام‌مند به مداقه در مقاله‌های مرتبط با فقرزدایی در 15 سال اخیر پرداخته است. پس از جست‌وجو در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی با استفاده از کلیدواژه‌های مرتبط با فقرزدایی، درنهایت 69 مقاله به‌دست آمد. نتایج حاصل از خوانش و تحلیل مقاله‌ها نشان می‌دهد فقر عمدتاً با ابزارهایی چون سطح درآمد مورد سنجش قرار می‌گیرد. بنابراین در جهت‌گیری نسبت به فقر، عمدتاً نگاه کمّی‌ غالب بوده و سایر ابعاد فقر، به‌ویژه بُعد اجتماعی، تا حدی زیادی مغفول مانده است. در میان برنامه‌های اجرا یا پیشنهاد شده، سیاست اشتغال‌زایی به‌عنوان‌ یکی از پایدارترین برنامه‌ها مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. به‌نظر می‌رسد هنوز جای نگاهی ژرفانگر به حوزۀ فقرزدایی و انجام پژوهش‌هایی که از تقلیل‌گرایی به دور باشد، خالی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Poverty Alleviation as One of the Axes in General Policies System: A Systematic Review of Policies and Programs (2005-2020)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fariba Firouzi 1
  • Gholamreza Sedighouraee 2
  • Ahmadreza Asgharpourmasouleh 3
1 MA Student of Social Science, Faculty of Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Poverty is a multi-layered concept that all societies have experienced its different forms. Poverty is defined as the disability in providing the basic needs. It goes without saying that this disability can raise serious crises. Considering the varied aspects of poverty alleviation, this issue should be studied in detail. The aim of this study is to identify the policies and plans for alleviating poverty, and figure out the elements of success and failure. It systematically reviewed the related articles about poverty alleviation during the last 15 years. Searching through the data bases with poverty alleviation keywords, 69 articles could be found. The analysis of the articles suggested that poverty is measure through the degree of income. Therefore, to address poverty, most of the resolutions are quantitative, and other aspects, particularly social ones, are neglected to a large extent. Among the suggested plans, the most sustainable one is employment. However, it seems that there is a dearth of non-reductive research in alleviating poverty.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • critical review
  • Empowerment
  • Government
  • general policies
  • Poverty
  • Poverty alleviation
Afgheh, M., Matlabnezhad, M., & Ghabishavi, A. (2019). Analyzing the effect of globalization and economic development on poverty in Iran. Journal of Fiscal and Economic Policies, 7(25), 31-57. (Persain)
Afshari, Z., & Beikzadeh, S. (2017). Financial development, unequal earning and poverty in Iran. Economic Development Policy, 5(1), 9-28. (Persain)
Ahmadi Shadmehri, M., & Davoodi, A. (2015). The role of government's expenses in providing economic-social infrastructure and reduction of poverty in Iran. Journal of The Macro and Strategic Policies, 3(10), 1-16. (Persain)
Allahdadi, F., & Aref, A. (2011). Human Resource Development for Poverty Alleviation in Iran. Life Science Journal, 8(3), 63-66.
Alvani, M., Poorezat, A., & Nejabat, E. (2014). Analyzing the reasons of ineffectiveness of policy making system for reducing poverty in Iran. Public Management, 7(1), 1-18. (Persain)
Amibandeh Gharayi, H., Khodadadkashi, F., Mousavi Jahromi, Y. (2019).    Evaluating the effect of paying subsidies in reducing poverty in Iran. Journal of Economic Research and Policies, 27(89), 7-27. (Persain)
Aram, M., & Seyed Emami, K. (2016). Policies of reducing poverty through social support. Political Knowledge, 12(2), 163-212. (Persain)
Arayi, M. (2005). A pathological study of reducing poverty in Iran. Social Welfare, 5(18), 1-23. (Persain)
Aref, A. (2011). Rural Cooperatives for poverty Alleviation in Iran. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 38-41.
Ashrafi, S., Davoud Behboodi, M., Panahi, H. (2018). Three aspects of development, unequality, and poverty in Iran during the development plans. Social Welfare, 18(71), 9-44. (Persain)
Ashraghi Samani, R., Fatahi, S., & Chaharsooghi, A. (2016). The role of rural cooperatives in reducing poverty in villages of Ilam province. Cooperative and Agriculture, 6(21), 87-106. (Persain)
Asna Ashari, A., & Mikaeeli, V. (2014). The effect of Zakat on reducing poverty and economic development: the case of northern cities of Mazandaran, Gilan, and Golestan. Journal of Islamic Finance Research, 2(3), 7-24. (Persain)
Assadzadeh, A., & Paul, S. (2004). Poverty, growth, and redistribution: a study of Iran. Review of Development Economics, 8(4), 640-653.
Azari Kian, H., & Dizji, M. (2016). Analyzing the effect of financial development on poverty in some selected countries. Applied Economy, 6, 55-66. (Persain)
Azizi, M., & Molayjerdi, M. (2017). Methods of financial support and social entrepreneurship. Financial Research Journal, 19(1), 119-138. (Persain)
Bagheri, F., & Kavand, H. (2008). The effect of economic development on poverty and unequality in Iran (1996-2005). Social Welfare, 7(28), 173-190. (Persain)
Banerjee, A., & Duflo, E. (2013). Economy of poverty: a fundamental review of methods of combating global poverty (translated into Farsi by Jafar Kheirkhah and Mehdi Feizi). Tehran: World of Economy Press. (Persain)
Bezazan, F., Ghasemi, A., & Raghfar, H. (2015). Analyzing the functions of government's policies in reducing poverty in Iran. Journal of Economic Development Policy, 3(8), 9-31. (Persain)
Dadvarkhani, S., Salmani, M., Farhadi, S., & Zare, Z. (2011). Good governance a strategy for reducing rural poverty. New Approaches in Human Geography, 3(4), 103-120. (Persain)
Damri, L., & Edison, T. (1991). Reduction of poverty and structural balance (translated into Farsi by monetary and bank research center). Tehran; Central Bank of IRIB, Research Center. (Persain)
De Muro, P., Mazziotta, M., & Pareto, A. (2011). Composite indices of development and poverty: An application to MDGs. Social Indicators Research, 104(1), 1-18.
Ebrahimzadeh, E., Eskandari Sani, M., & Ramezanpoor, S. (2016). Strategies for reducing poverty in urban areas through resistance economy: the case of Tehran. Geography and Development, 14(44), 1-23. (Persain)
Entezari, A., & Mehri, N. (2013). An introduction to meta-analysis: the potential of meta-analysis in social science research. Tehran: Sociologists Press. (Persain)
Eskandari Sani, M., & Sajadi, Zh. (2014). Group agency: developing neighborhood gatherings and their role in reducing urban poverty: the case of Nematabad in Tehran. Geography and Territorial Spatial Agreement, 11, 31-48. (Persain)
Ezati, M., & Mahmoodian, M. (2014). The effect of public help on reducing poverty in Iran. Islamic Economy, 14(53), 31-55. (Persain)
Farahmand, Sh., Tayebi, K., & Karimi, M. (2013). The effect of production and improvement on poverty and social welfare in provinces of Iran (2000-2007). Applied Sociology, 24(2), 127-142. (Persain)
Fetres, M., & Shahbazi, F. (2015). Analyzing the effect of improving income on poverty in Iran: 1984-2013. Economic Research, 50(3), 685-706. (Persain)
Ghafari, M. (2014). Strategies of reducing poverty: a resolution in institutional economy. Planning and Budget, 19(4), 215-242. (Persain)
Ghanbari Barzian, A., & Hemati, R. (2015). Religious identity in Iranian Society: a systematic review of some studies from 2001-2013. Applied Sociology, 26(3), 117-138. (Persain)
Gharni Arayi, B. (2015). Analyzing the quantitative role of cooperative planning in reducing rural poverty the case of Firoozkooh city, Lazoor village. Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement, 15, 117-135. (Persain)
Ghazi Tabatabai, M., & Dadhir, A. (2010). A meta-analysis of social and behavioral research. Tehran: Sociologists. (Persain)
Gohari, F., Abotorabi, M., & Gohari, L. (2014). Analyzing the effect of financial development on reducing poverty focusing on the banking system the case of some developing countries. Strategy of Development, 43, 132-160. (Persain)
Grant, M. J., & Bootht, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26, 91-108.
Habibnezhad, A., & Salmani Sebiti, M. (2019). A model of reducing poverty in the legal system of Islamic Republic of Iran based on the concept of responsible freedom. Administrative Law, 7(20, 9-35. (Persain)
Hasanvand, D., & Nademi, Y. (2017). The effect of financial development on reducing poverty in Iran. Economic Research, 52(1), 35-60. (Persain)
Hassanzadeh, A., Ezvaji, A., & Ghavidel, S. (2006). Analyzing the effect of micro-credit in reducing poverty and inequality of income. Islamic Economy, 6, 45-69. (Persain)
Hooshmand, M., Mostafavi, M., Ahmadi Shadmehri, M., & Mohaghegh, A. (2013). Analyzing the effect of tourism on reducing poverty in some selected developing countries. Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 2(1), 11-28. (Persain)
Hussain, M. D., Bhuiyan, A. B., & Bakar, R. (2014). Enterepreneu1rship development and poverty alleviation: an empirical review. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 4(10), 558-573.
Khandoozi, E., Shahsavari, S., & Alamkhah, A. (2015). Analyzing the policies of reducing poverty in five development plans of Islamic Republic of Iran. Rahbord, 46, 94-114. (Persain)
Khodabakhshi Gorgani, F. (2017). Analyzing the effect of tourism on income distribution and poverty reduction in Iran. Tourism, 5(9), 41-58. (Persain)
Khodaparast, M., & Davoodi, A. (2013). Government expenses and the reduction of poverty and inequality. Journal of The Macro and Strategic Policies, 1(4), 37-50. (Persain)
Mahmoodi, V., Abooyi Ardakani, M., Abdolahi Milani, M., & Shabani, E. (2018). Analyzing the social support system based on human potentialities. Public Policy, 4(2), 57-79. (Persain)
Mohammadpoor, A., Boostani, D., & Alizadeh, M. (2012). A qualitative analysis of welfare organizations and relief foundation in reducing women's poverty as family responsibles in Sari city. Social Welfare, 12(46), 319-352. (Persain)
Mojaverian, M., & Raisi, N. (2014). Does supportive strategies of government reduce poverty rate in villages? the case of Mazandaran province. Rural Development Strategies, 1(4), 13-24. (Persain)
Mojtahedzadeh, V., & Tabghian, F. (2010). Social responsibilities of companies in reducing poverty: indexes of social performance and the role of motivation in their employment. Securities and Exchanges, 14, 221-236. (Persain)
Mostafayi, Sh., Khodadadkashi, F., & Mousavi Jahromi, Y. (2019). The effect of industry on reducing poverty in all provinces of Iran. Planning and Budget, 24(1), 51-75. (Persain)
Mostafayi, Sh., Khodadadkashi, F., & Mousavi Jahromi, Y. (2020). The effect of industrial development in reducing poverty in some provinces of Iran. Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, 10(38), 45-60. (Persain)
Motamed, MK. (2009). Role of cooperative companies in sustainable rice production and poverty alleviation in Guilan state of Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(11), 1592-1599.
Mousayi, M., Karami, Y. (2008). Analyzing the role of Khoms in dealing with poverty. Strategy of Development, 16, 94-119. (Persain)
Najafi, B., & Shooshtarian, A. (2007). Measuring the poverty rate, amount of poverty and its effective factors on rural and urban families of Iran. Agricultural Economics and Development, 15(59), 1-24. (Persain)
Najafi, M., Khanzadi, A., & Ghaderi Siahbeidi, E. (2016). The effect of human resource productivity on reducing poverty in Iran. Majles and Rahbord, 24(92), 311-336. (Persain)
Nasiri, E. (2015). Strategies of reducing urban poverty focusing on community gatherin the case of Bisim community in Zanjan city. Urban Planning Studies, 2(7), 107-125. (Persain)
Nasirkhani, P., Ezati, M., & Nezamparast, R. (2018). The effect of Islamic institutes on public helping for reducing poverty in Iran. Islamic Banking and Economics, 25, 221-236. (Persain)
Nazarpoor, M., Ashraghi, F., & Khajeh Saeed, Z. (2013). The effect of Islamic banking and economic development on poverty and economic inequality in some selected Islamic countries. Journal of Quantitative Studies in Management, 4(2), 43-58. (Persain)
Omidi, S., & Chaharsooghi Amin, H. (2018). The role of small businesses on reducing poverty in rural families of Mehran city. Journal of Space Economy and Rural Development, 7(1), 167-182. (Persain)
Parvin, S., Banooyi, A., & Abasian Nigjeh, S. (2013). The development of economic sectors in reducing poverty through SAM approach. Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, 10, 27-40. (Persain)
Poorezat, A., & Nejabat, E. (2012). Analyzing the policies of reducing poverty and their hierarchy. Social Welfare, 12(46), 299-317. (Persain)
Poormokhtar, E., & Moghadasi, R. (2016). Analyzing the relationship between monetary policies and farmers' welfare for reducing poverty in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Economic Research, 8(4), 101-126. (Persain)
Poortaheri, M., Talebi, H., Rokn al-Din Eftekhari, A. (2010). Analyzing the economic and social factors for reducing rural poverty through nutritious poverty: Khejelestan sector of Qom province. The Journal of Spatial Planning, 15(2), 61-80. (Persain)
Raghfar, H., & Soleimani, M. (2016). Empowering and reducing poverty from divorced and widowed women in Selseleh city. Women in Development and Politics, 14(1), 51-68. (Persain)
Raghfar, H., Babapoor, M., & Yazdanpanah, M. (2015). Analyzing the relationship between economic development and poverty and inequality in Iran through the first and fourth development plans. Journal of Applied Economic Studies, 4(16), 59-79. (Persain)
Raisi, R., Najafi, B., & Pezhman, B. (2013). Analyzing the effect of women's membership in rural cooperatives on improving job opportunity and reducing poverty in families based on Logit model. Journal of Sociological and Psychological Women's Studies, 11(4), 135-164. (Persain)
Ramezani, A., Rabie, A., Zahedi Mazandarani, M., & Firoozabadi, A. (2018). Comparing the entrepreneurship social direction and charity in different aspects of poverty in supportive institutes in Mashhad. Majles and Rahbord, 25(96), 179-212. (Persain)
Rezazadeh, M., & Fani, Z. (2016). Spatial analysis of religious institutes for empowering and reducing poverty in urban areas: the case of section one in Tehran. Geographical Planning of Space, 6(22), 155-174. (Persain)
Rezvani, M., Badri, A., & Torabi, Z. (2018). A model of nature tourism and reducing poverty in some selected villages in the east of Semnan province: a qualitative study. Tourism and Development, 7(4), 205-225. (Persain)
Saberifar, R., & Gheisari, S. (2009). Social management of rural areas and poverty reduction: the case of villages in Hossein Abad Gheinab Sarbisheh. Village and Development, 12(2), 15-36. (Persain)
Sadeghi, H., & Davoodi, A. (2011). The effect of government expenditure on poverty rate of villages in Iran. Journal of Economic Research and Policies, 19(58), 107-126. (Persain)
Sadeghi, H., Baskha, M., & Shaghaghi Shahri, V. (2008). The relationship between economic development and poverty and income inequality in some developing countries. Social Welfare, 9(33), 27-44. (Persain)
Sadeghi, H., Fathi, M., & Shafie, A. (2012). The status of public help on reducing poverty in the Islamic country: the case of Iran from 2006 to 2009. Islamic Economy, 12(45), 5-32. (Persain)
Sanayi Alam, F., Memarzadeh Tehran, Gh., & Daneshfard, K. (2016). A model of applying policies of reducing poverty in Iran based on the 20-year perspective. Journal of Strategic Management Studies, 28, 233-266. (Persain)
Sarvari, A., Karbasi, A., Daneshvar Kakhki, D., & Hatef, H. (2012). The effect of development rate of economic sectors and commercial liberation on reducing poverty in Iran. Agricultural Economics and Development, 21(83), 191-210. (Persain)
Sedighian Bidgoli, A., & Lashgari, M. (2017). A review on the social aspects of student life in Iran. Research and Planning in Higher Education, 23(3), 115-138. (Persain)
Sen, A. (2002). Development as freedom (translated into Farsi by Ahmad Movasaghi). Tehran: Tehran University Press. (Persain)
Shahabadi, A., & Amiri, B. (2013). The effect of financial development on poverty in Islamic countries. Planning and Budget, 18(4), 27-42. (Persain)
Shakoor, A., Shams al-Dini, A., & Javadi Haghighi, E. (2016). Analyzing the performance of relief foundation in reducing poverty in rural areas focusing on development parameters: the case of Shiraz city. Journal of Environmental Studies, 5(17), 63-72. (Persain)
Shakoori, A., & Bahrami, Sh. (2014). The effect of rural tourism on reducing poverty based on sustainable income: the case of Ghalenou and Kelin villages of Rey city. Rural Development, 6(1), 3-24. (Persain)
Shamayi, A. (2015). Strategies of neighborhood development via cooperative approach in facilitation offices: the case of poor areas of Jomhoori neighborhood in Tehran. Community Development, 7(1), 103-128. (Persain)
Shirvanian, A., & Najafi, B. (2011). Analyzing the role of social capital on welfare and poverty reduction in villages: the case of watering and fencing areas of Doroodzan. Agricultural Economy, 5(3), 25-53. (Persain)
Taleb, M., Piri, S., & Mohammadi, S. (2010). Meta-analysis of poverty studies in rural areas of Iran. Rural Development, 2(2), 23-40. (Persain)
Torkamani, J., & Jamali Moghadam, E. (2008). Analyzing the direct and indirect effect of governmental civil capitals in developing productivity and reducing poverty in rural areas of Iran. Village and Development, 11(4), 1-24. (Persain)
Yarshael, S., & Habibian Naghibi, M. (2015). The effect of objectifying subsidies on poverty and income distribution in Iran: a model for job opportunity. Journal of Economic Modeling Research, 6(23), 159-196. (Persain)
Yasoori, M., Ofoghi, N., & Emami, F. (2017). Rural cooperation: strategies for achieving development and reducing poverty the case of Saravan village in Rasht city. Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 6(3), 220-234. (Persain)
Zahedi Asl, M., & Basatian, M. (2011). Issues of poverty in Iran. Social Development and Welfare Planning, 2(7), 1-26. (Persain)
Ziari, K., & Mousavi, M. (2008). Analyzing the measurement of poverty line and policies of reducing poverty in Yazd province. Geography and Development, 15, 5-20. (Persain)
Zibayi, M., & Shooshtarian, A. (2007). Analyzing the dynamism of poverty in Iran through mixed-data of rural and urban families. Iranian Journal of Economic Research, 9(32), 55-83. (Persain)