ارزیابی حُسن اجرای سیاست‌‎های راهبردی و کلانِ علم و فناوری در ایران مبتنی بر رویکرد شبکۀ سیاستی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، رشتۀ سیاستگذاری علم و فناوری، دانشکدۀ مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی فناوری اطلاعات، پردیس دانشکده‌های فنی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استاد، گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دانشکدۀ مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش ارزیابی حُسن اجرای سیاست‌‎های راهبردی و کلانِ علم و فناوری در ایران به‌روش شبکۀ سیاستی است. بدین منظور، با مرور منابع و تحقیقات در حوزۀ سیاست‌‎گذاری عمومی و به‌ویژه سیاست‌‎گذاری علم و فناوری، چارچوبی نظری شامل سه مرحلۀ سیاست‌گذاری کلی (شامل دو سطح اَبَرسیاست‌‎ها و سیاست‌‎های راهنما)، سیاست‌‎گذاری اجرایی (شامل سه بخش سیاست‌‎های سمت تقاضا، سیاست‌‎های سمت عرضه و سیاست‌‎های زیرساخت مبادله) و ارزیابی سیاستی (در سه سطح بروندادها، پیامدها و آثار) تدوین شد. سپس شبکۀ سیاستی علم و فناوریِ ایران در وضعیت موجود، نخست مبتنی بر اسناد سیاستی و سپس مبتنی بر نظریات خبرگان نگاشت و با یکدیگر مقایسه شد. بدین منظور، نخست 25 سند سیاستی بررسی و سپس پرسش‌نامه‌‎ای تدوین و بین 50 نفر از خبرگان سیاست علم و فناوریِ ایران توزیع شد. برای تحلیل و ترسیم نگاشت‌‎های حاصل از اسناد سیاستی و نظریات خبرگان، از نرم‌افزارهای یو‌سی‌آی نت (UCI Net) و نت دراو (NetDraw) و برای مقایسۀ آن‌ها با یکدیگر از آزمون تی به کمک نرم‌افزار اس‌پی‌اس‌اس استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌‎دهد عملکرد شبکۀ سیاستی علم و فناوریِ ایران مبتنی بر آرای خبرگان در قریب به 44 درصد نسبت به تکالیف اسناد سیاستی انحراف دارد؛ بدین معنا که در مأموریت‌‎های سیاستیِ تعدادی از نهادهای شبکۀ سیاستی علم و فناوریِ ایران، تفاوت‌‎های معنادار بین آنچه در اسناد سیاستی ذکر شده و آنچه در عمل انجام می‌‎شود، وجود دارد. همچنین دربارۀ بعضی سیاست‌‎های علم و فناوری، ضعف جدی عملکرد مشاهده می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Good Implementation of Strategic and Macro-Policies of Science and Technology Based on Policy Network Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeel Kalantari 1
  • Gholamali Montazer 2
  • Seyyed Sepehr Ghazinoory 3
1 PhD Candidate of Policy Making in Science and Technology, Faculty of Management and Economy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of IT Engineering, Pardis of Technical Faculties, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Department of IT Management, Faculty of Management and Economy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this research is to evaluate the good implementation of strategic and macro-policies of science and technology in Iran based on policy network approach. Reviewing the studies in public policy making, particularly science and technology policy making, a model in three phases of macro-policy making (two meta-policies and guiding policies), executive policy making (in three sections of demand policies, supply policies, and exchanging policies), and political evaluation (in three sections of outcome, consequence, and work) was suggested. Then, the policy network of science and technology in Iran was modelled based on the policy documents and experts' opinions, which were compared afterwards. UCI Net and NetDraw software were used to analyze the documents and the experts' opinions. Their comparison was done through t-test in the SPSS software. The findings indicate that the performance of the policy network of science and technology in Iran based on the experts' opinions has 44% functional deviation from the policy documents. This means that in political missions, some institutions of policy network in Iran's science and technology have a significant difference with clauses in the policy documents and their implementation. Also, there are some performance weaknesses in some policies of science and technology.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Policy documents
  • Science and technology policy making
  • Science and Technology Policy Network
  • functional deviation
  • Iran
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